DERMATOPATHOLOGY CASES: Self-Assessment Cases: Editor - Dr Sampurna Roy MD

Digital Images of interesting cases that will include the full spectrum of Dermatopathology, presented in the form of quiz.

The answer of the cases include related links and recent abstracts of articles.

Thursday, February 10, 2011

Answer of Dermatopathology Case 94

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Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating hypertrophic lichen planus : Three case reports and review of the literature. Hautarzt. 2011 Jan;62(1):40-45.

Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous T-cell-mediated disease, whose cause is still unknown. The first case of lichen planus that transformed into squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 1903. We present three patients in whom squamous cell carcinomas were identified in chronic lichen planus. The world literature includes at least 91 cases, including our three cases. In an epidemiological study, no significant risk of transformation of cutaneous lichen planus into squamous cell carcinomas was found. In contrast, there is a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation in mucosal lichen planus, so that the WHO had graded mucosal lichen planus as a premalignant condition.

Extensive hypertrophic lichen planus in an HIV positive patient. Dermatol Online J. 2010 Jun 15;16(6):8.

Individuals who are infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) suffer from numerous dermatoses. These disorders are often more severe than those observed in non HIV-infected persons afflicted with the same diseases. Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory papulosquamous skin disorder. Herein, the diagnosis and treatment of a 40-year-old HIV+ Kenyan man afflicted with hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) is described. In this case, lesions of HLP were widely distributed across the trunk and extremities, having become of such thickness on the dorsal surfaces of the hands and fingers as to make normal use of hands impossible. A significant distinguishing feature of this patient is prior history of tuberculosis, which is a known trigger for lichenoid skin lesions.

Hypertrophic lichen planus-like reactions combined with infundibulocystic hyperplasia: pathway to neoplasia. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Oct;140(10):1262-7.

BACKGROUND: Retinoids have the capacity to accelerate the involution of multiple keratoacanthomas, including unusual variants such as keratoacanthoma marginatum centrifugum and keratoacanthoma en plaque that may persist and be associated with progressive growth and provide difficulties in diagnosis and management.
OBSERVATIONS: We describe 3 patients who had unusual infiltrated and keratotic plaques affecting the lower legs or nasolabial area that persisted or recurred that may be related to this group of unusual keratoacanthomas. The 3 patients had differing clinical lesions that did not resemble classic keratoacanthomas, but were linked by their biopsy findings of hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with a prominent infundibulocystic component that progressed to multiple keratoacanthomas or infundibulocystic squamous cell carcinoma. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of biopsy material from 2 patients failed to detect human papillomavirus. All 3 presentations provided a therapeutic dilemma, but responded rapidly to acitretin treatment at a dosage of 10 to 25 mg daily, which was continued for 15 to 24 months.
CONCLUSIONS: These cases illustrate an unusual reaction pattern that is hypertrophic lichen planus-like but, instead of evolving to classic lichen planus, progresses to infundibulocystic hyperplasia and the development of multiple keratoacanthomas or infundibulocystic squamous cell carcinomas. Retinoids represent a therapeutic option for this difficult clinical problem and may obviate repeated and extensive surgery.

Giant keratoacanthoma arising in hypertrophic lichen planus.Australas J Dermatol. 2003 Nov;44(4):267-9.

A 45-year-old man presented with a rapidly enlarging tumour in an area of long-standing hypertrophic lichen planus of the lower leg. Histological examination of the resected specimen showed it to be a giant keratoacanthoma measuring 37 x 57 mm. Neoplastic change is a rarely reported complication of chronic variants of cutaneous lichen planus. To date there have been only two reports of keratoacanthoma development in association with lichen planus.