DERMATOPATHOLOGY CASES: Self-Assessment Cases: Editor - Dr Sampurna Roy MD

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Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Answer of Dermatopathology Case 72

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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Abstract:

Molecular characterization of leishmania species isolated from cutaneous leishmaniasis in yemen. PLoS One.2010 Sep 20;5(9). pii: e12879.

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person-to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL.

Viability and burden of Leishmania in extralesional sites during human dermal leishmaniasis.PLoS Negl Trop Dis.2010 Sep 14;4(9). pii: e819.

BACKGROUND: The clinical and epidemiological significance of Leishmania DNA in extralesional sites is obscured by uncertainty of whether the DNA derives from viable parasites. To examine dissemination of Leishmania during active disease and the potential participation of human infection in transmission, Leishmania 7SLRNA was exploited to establish viability and estimate parasite burden in extralesional sites of dermal leishmaniasis patients.
METHODS: The feasibility of discriminating parasite viability by PCR of Leishmania 7SLRNA was evaluated in relation with luciferase activity of luc transfected intracellular amastigotes in dose-response assays of Glucantime cytotoxicity. Monocytes, tonsil swabs, aspirates of normal skin and lesions of 28 cutaneous and 2 mucocutaneous leishmaniasis patients were screened by kDNA amplification/Southern blot. Positive samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR of Leishmania 7SLRNA genes and transcripts.
RESULTS: 7SLRNA amplification coincided with luciferase activity, confirming discrimination of parasite viability. Of 22 patients presenting kDNA in extralesional samples, Leishmania 7SLRNA genes or transcripts were detected in one or more kDNA positive samples in 100% and 73% of patients, respectively. Gene and transcript copy number amplified from extralesional tissues were comparable to lesions. 7SLRNA transcripts were detected in 13/19 (68%) monocyte samples, 5/12 (42%) tonsil swabs, 4/11 (36%) normal skin aspirates, and 22/25 (88%) lesions; genes were quantifiable in 15/19 (79%) monocyte samples, 12/13 (92%) tonsil swabs, 8/11 (73%) normal skin aspirates.
CONCLUSION: Viable parasites are present in extralesional sites, including blood monocytes, tonsils and normal skin of dermal leishmaniasis patients. Leishmania 7SLRNA is an informative target for clinical and epidemiologic investigations of human leishmaniasis.

Chemokines and chemokines receptors coordinate the inflammatory immune response in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Hum Immunol. 2010 Sep 17.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) includes different clinical manifestations displaying diverse intensity of dermal inflammatory infiltrate. Diffuse CL (DCL) cases are hyporesponsive and lesions show very few lymphocytes and a predominance of macrophages. In contrast, localized CL (LCL) cases are responsive to leishmanial antigen and lesions exhibit granulocytes and mononuclear cell infiltration in its early phases, changing to a pattern with numerous lymphocytes and macrophages later in the lesion. Therefore, different chemokines may affect the predominance of cell infiltration in distinct clinical manifestations. In lesions from LCL patients, we examined by flow cytometry, the presence of different chemokines and their receptors in T cells and we verified a higher expression of CXCR3 in the early stages of LCL (less than 30 days of infection) and a higher expression of CCR4 in the late stages of disease (more than 60 days of infection). We also observed a higher frequency of T cells producing IL-10 in the late stage of LCL. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed a higher expression of CCL7, CCL17 in lesions from late LCL, as well as CCR4 suggesting a preferential recruitment of regulatory T cells in the late LCL. Comparing lesions from LCL and DCL patients, we observed a higher frequency of CCL7 in DCL lesions. These results point out the importance of the chemokines, defining the different types of cells recruited to the site of the infection, which could be related to the outcome of infection as well as the clinical form observed.

The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a focus of the disease in Jahrom district, southern Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010 Jul;104(5):377-82.

Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in several parts of Iran, and there is an urban focus of the disease in the district of Jahrom, which forms part of the southern province of Fars. To explore the current profile of the disease in Jahrom district, samples were taken from the skin lesions of 40 cases of CL patients in the district, so that the causative parasites could be identified, to species, in a nested PCR. Although Leishmania tropica has been identified, in the past, as the cause of most of the urban CL in Fars province, the predominant species represented in the recent samples from Jahrom district was L. major (87.5%), while L. tropica was relatively rare (12.5%). More than one in every three (35%) of the cases examined was a child aged <10>25 such lesions. The change in the predominant parasite causing CL in Jahrom district, from the L. tropica usually associated with the urban disease in Iran to the L. major more usually associated with CL in rural settings, may well necessitate changes in the local strategies for the prevention and control of CL.

Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani and Leishmania tropica: preliminary findings of the study of 161 new cases from a new endemic focus in himachal pradesh, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jun;72(6):819-24.

Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) in India is due mostly to Leishmania tropica. It is mainly endemic in the deserts of Rajasthan. Recently, Himachal Pradesh has been identified as a new endemic focus for the disease. In the last few years, the number of new cases has been increasing almost to epidemic proportions. This report presents the preliminary findings of clinico-epidemiologic and investigative results of 161 new localized cases of LCL seen between May 2001 and December 2003. The study populaton was composed of 80 males and 81 females between 10 months and 75 years of age. All were indigenous to the sub-alpine valley along the Satluj River in the mountainous region of the Kinnaur District (altitude = 700-2,900 meters). Most patients were seen from April to September and had 1-8 lesions (duration = 1-6 months) that involved mainly the face. Tissue smears were positive for amastigotes in 37% and histopathology showed non-caseating epitheloid cell granuloma in 77% of the cases. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the ribosomal gene region of 10 biopsy specimens showed amplicons indistinguishable from L. donovani in eight cases and L. tropica in two cases. Leishmania was cultured on modified Nicole-Novy-McNeal (NNN) medium containing RPMI 1640 medium and heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum from 13 of 38 biopsy samples. Three of these isolated strains were identified as L. donovani while a fourth was L. tropica by PCR-RFLP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. One strain had a gp63 sequence identical to that of east African strains. Another strain had a unique gp63 sequence that has not been found in L. donovani complex strains. Sand flies trapped in the cattle sheds of a few patients were identified as Phlebotomus longiductus (Parrot 1928). Treatment with intralesional sodium stibogluconate was effective in all patients without any major side effects. One patient developed lupoid leishmaniasis that responded to higher dose of sodium stibogluconate. Though rarely reported as a cause of LCL, L. donovani seems to be the predominant pathogen in this new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus longiductus is a possible vector, albeit based on circumstantial evidence.