DERMATOPATHOLOGY CASES: Self-Assessment Cases: Editor - Dr Sampurna Roy MD

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Monday, September 27, 2010

Answer of Dermatopathology Case 71

Grover's Disease

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Photo Quiz-Pruritic Papules on the Chest and Back:Am Fam Physician. 2006 Aug 15;74(4):641-642.

Grover's disease: clinicopathologic review of 72 cases. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Mar;74(3):229-34.

OBJECTIVE: To report the clinicopathologic findings in patients with Grover's disease.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and biopsy specimens from 72 patients with transient acantholytic dermatosis (Grover's disease) examined at Mayo Clinic Rochester. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained biopsy specimens (from all patients) were assessed. Immunohistochemistry stains BRST-2, CAM 5.2, and CD44 were used to stain eight specimens. Direct immunofluorescence reports were reviewed. Selected specimens were stained by indirect immunofluorescence to detect major basic protein.
RESULTS: Of the 72 patients, 63 (88%) were men, and the mean age was 48 years (range, 31 to 85). Lesions were distributed mainly on the trunk (in 71 patients) and proximal extremities (in 25). Heat and sweating frequently were exacerbating factors. Fifteen patients (21%) were bedbound. Concurrent nondermatologic malignant disease was present in 18 patients (25%). Two patients (3%) had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Follow-up in 28 patients (mean, 38 months; range, 3 months to 7 years) revealed that the disease had recurred in 13, persisted in 3, and resolved in 12. Review of the biopsy specimens showed that acantholysis was pemphigus vulgaris-like in 40 patients (56%), Darier's disease-like in 16 (22%), spongiotic in 12 (17%), pemphigus foliaceus-like in 2 (3%), and Hailey-Hailey disease-like in 2 (3%). A perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate of varied intensity in 64 specimens (89%) was associated with eosinophils in 16 (22%). In nine biopsy specimens with dermal eosinophilia stained for major basic protein, varied dermal cellular and extracellular deposition of major basic protein was present. Results of direct immunofluorescence studies, performed in 17 cases, were negative or nonspecific. CD44 stained acantholytic areas in addition to sweat glands in two of eight specimens (25%).
CONCLUSION: Further studies of the pathogenesis of Grover's disease are needed. The predisposing conditions, site of involvement, and relapsing nature of this disorder may implicate acrosyringeal dysfunction as the cause.

Grover's disease: 34 years on.Australas J Dermatol.2004 ;45(2):83-6;quiz 87-8.

Grover's disease is an entity reported worldwide and recognized as a common disease since Grover first described it in 1970. Its cause remains obscure, but hospitalized, febrile and sun-damaged patients are particularly prone. It is frequently associated with some other skin diseases, including eczemas, psoriasis and solar keratoses. Acantholysis is the universal histological finding in all the varying clinical presentations. Treatment in the past has been ad hoc, but topical therapy, acitretin and phototherapy can suppress symptoms.

Transient acantholytic dermatosis (Grover's disease) in a renal transplant patient.J Dermatol. 2006 Mar;33(3):178-81.

Grover's disease ("transient acantholytic dermatosis") is a transient dermatosis of unknown cause manifesting clinically as a papular skin eruption located usually on the anterior chest and abdomen and histologically with dyskeratosis and acantholysis. Grover's disease has occasionally been reported in patients with chronic renal failure, HIV infection, hematological malignancies and bone-marrow allotransplantation. We report herein a new case of Grover's disease that developed in a renal transplant patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of Grover's disease developing in the setting of solid organ transplantation.