Sunday, September 5, 2010
Answer of Dermatopathology Case 68
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Langerhans cell hyperplasia of the skin mimicking Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a report of two cases in children not associated with scabies. Fetal Pediatr Pathol.2010;29(4):231-8.
Langerhans cells histiocytosis (LCH) affecting the skin most commonly has clinical and histopathologic diagnostic features. We are reporting two examples of Langerhans cell (LC) hyperplasia recognized in the skin biopsies of two children initially interpreted as LCH. The first was an 8-year-old boy finally interpreted as having an atypical type of contact dermatitis, while the second, an 8-year-old girl, was assumed to have Pytiriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta. None showed evidences of scabies. Both presented spongiotic dermatitis with numerous CD1a+ cells. As more cases of LC hyperplasia are recognized, new details emerge helping in the differential diagnosis. Strict clinical-pathologic correlation is suggested in order to avoid misdiagnosis.
Scabies.Dermatol Ther.2009 Jul-Aug;22(4):279-92.
Scabies is an ectoparasite caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis, an obligate human parasite. There are about 300 million cases of scabies in the world each year. Common predisposing factors are overcrowding, immigration, poor hygiene, poor nutritional status, homelessness, dementia, and sexual contact. Direct skin-to-skin contact between 15 and 20 minutes is needed to transfer the mites from one person to another. The diagnosis suspected with a clinical history of itch, worse at night, affecting other family members, clinical distribution, and appearance. Definite diagnosis relies on microscopic identification of the mites, eggs, or fecal pellets with 10% potassium hydroxide, ink enhancement, tetracycline fluorescence tests, or mineral oil; other methods include: epiluminescence light microscopy and S. scabiei DNA. The most commonly used treatment modalities are permethrin and ivermectin. Persistence of symptoms for 2-6 weeks after successful treatment is common. Most recurrences are because of reinfection from untreated contacts.
Crusted (Norwegian) scabies following systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy.J Korean Med Sci.2010 Jan;25(1):188-91. Epub 2009 Dec 26.
It is a case study of a 62-yr-old female with crusted (Norwegian) scabies, which appeared during her treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy, under the diagnosis of erythroderma. In the same time, the patient had been suffered from hypothyoidism, and her skin changes were misdiagnosed, because it was thought that they are associated with her endocrine disorder. Suddenly, beside the erythema, her skin became hyperkeratotic, with widespread scaling over the trunk and limbs, and crusted lesions appeared on her scalp and ears. The microscopic examination of the skin scales with potassium hydroxide demonstrated numerous scabies mites and eggs. Repeated topical treatments with lindan, benzoyl benzoat and 10% precipitated sulphur ointment led to the complete resolution of her skin condition.
Diagnostic dilemma: crusted scabies superimposed on psoriatic erythroderma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Skinmed.2007 May-Jun;6(3):142-4.
A 45-year-old man with AIDS presented with extensive erythema and scaling involving the face, trunk, and upper and lower extremities, and mild nail dystrophy. The patient had been diagnosed with psoriasis 2 years previously, and at the time of presentation was using emollients and topical corticosteroid creams with little improvement. He was receiving zidovudine, lamivudine, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, acyclovir, rifabutin, and hydroxyzine. Pertinent laboratory data included CD4 lymphocytes (10 cells/mm(3)), viral load (32,000 copies per mL) white blood cell count (3.4 x 10(3)/microL), hemoglobin (13.5 g/dL), and platelets (204 x 10(3)/microL). Because of the extensive eruption and lack of response to topical agents, the patient was started on acitretin 25 mg daily. The patient had shown no signs of improvement 4 weeks later and was noted to have brownish gray crusted plaques involving the beard area, neck, upper part of the back, arms, trunk, genitals, and thighs in addition to his erythroderma (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Microscopic examination of scales from the upper part of the back revealed numerous scabies mites and eggs. He was then treated with lindane shampoo on the scalp and beard area and permethrin 5% cream to the body. The patient returned 2 weeks later with some improvement after thrice-weekly applications of this regimen; however, scrapings from the trunk once again revealed live scabies mites. Microscopic examination of scales that had fallen on the examination table revealed multiple mites and eggs. The patient was then given permethrin 5% cream, which he applied 3 times a week for 2 weeks, and 1 dose of oral ivermectin, 200 micro/kg. This resulted in a marked decrease in crusting and scaling. With resolution of the scabies lesions, the patient displayed marked erythema and scaling of the trunk and extremities consistent with generalized psoriasis (Figure 3). Treatment with acitretin resulted in gradual resolution of the erythroderma. A few months later, the patient presented with nodules on the upper part of the back, which on biopsy revealed a scabies mite (Figure 4).
Diagnosis and treatment of scabies: a practical guide. Am J Clin Dermatol.2002;3(1):9-18.
Scabies is a common, highly pruritic infestation of the skin caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. Hominis. It is a very contagious parasitosis with specific lesions, such as burrows, and nonspecific lesions, such as papules, vesicles and excoriations. The typical areas of the body it affects are finger webs, wrists, axillary folds, abdomen, buttocks, inframammary folds and, in men, the genitalia. It is characterized by intense nocturnal pruritus. Scabies is spread through close personal contact (relatives, sexual partners, schoolchildren, chronically ill patients and crowded communities). Definitive diagnosis is made when the scabies mites or their eggs or fecal pellets can be identified on a light microscope. New techniques for diagnosis include the use of the epiluminiscence microscopy. The most common topical treatments for scabies include lindane and permethrin. Permethrin provides a greater margin of tolerability because of its low inherent toxicity and low percutaneous absorption. Oral ivermectin is the most recently developed treatment for scabies. A single oral dose of ivermectin 200 microg/kg of bodyweight is a well-tolerated and very effective treatment. It is especially indicated in crusted scabies, scabies in immunocompromised hosts and infestations in crowded communities. It is also useful as a simple treatment in the prophylaxis of close contacts.