DERMATOPATHOLOGY CASES: Self-Assessment Cases: Editor - Dr Sampurna Roy MD

Digital Images of interesting cases that will include the full spectrum of Dermatopathology, presented in the form of quiz.

The answer of the cases include related links and recent abstracts of articles.








Sunday, January 30, 2011

Answer of Dermatopathology Case 85



Visit: Dermatopathology site
Visit: Cutaneous Lesions in Graft versus Host Disease

Abstract:

Clinicopathologic characteristics of cutaneous chronic graft-versus-host diseases: a retrospective study in Korean patients. Int J Dermatol. 2010 Dec;49(12):1386-92.
BACKGROUND: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication in long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Cutaneous manifestations are frequently the presenting features; therefore, the dermatologist needs to be aware of the wide spectrum of cutaneous cGVHD.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients' characteristics, clinical, and histological features of cutaneous cGVHD and analyzed factors influencing the severity of cutaneous cGVHD in 100 Korean HSCT recipients between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2007.
RESULTS: Clinical manifestations of cutaneous cGVHD mainly presented as lichenoid (60.0%), sclerodermoid (12.0%), or erythematous maculopapular (22.0%) patterns. Other less common findings included xerosis, dyspigmentation, acquired ichthyosis, eczema, exfoliative dermatitis, alopecia, erythema multiforme-like or keratosis pilaris-like eruption. Among 100 patients, 46 patients were investigated for nail involvement, and 29 (63.0%) of them were accompanied with nail abnormalities. Histologically, characteristic lichenoid lesions were observed in 53%, sclerodermoid in 9%, and acute/chronic overlap syndrome in 28% of patients. We also discovered that HSCT from female donors to male recipients increased the severity of cutaneous cGVHD.
CONCLUSIONS: We report a large study about cutaneous cGVHD in Asian patients. Cutaneous cGVHD presented with a wide spectrum of clinical and histological manifestations.

Early-onset lichenoid graft-vs.-host disease: a unique variant of acute graft-vs.-host disease occurring in peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipients. J Cutan Pathol.2010 May;37(5):549-58. Epub 2009 Oct 15.
BACKGROUND: A complication of stem cell transplantation is chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD), developing months to years after transplant; the two commonest manifestations are lichenoid GvHD and scleroderma. The purpose of this study was to characterize early-onset lichenoid GvHD.
METHODS: A retrospective study identified patients diagnosed with early-onset lichenoid GvHD. This diagnosis was correlated with type of transplant and concurrent or prior episodes of acute GvHD.
RESULTS: Patients in whom a sex mismatch was present between donor and recipient were included, representing a study population of 17. All received an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT). All patients had biopsy proven lichenoid GvHD within 60 days or less following transplantation. All had concurrent gastrointestinal symptoms which was biopsy proven GvHD in thirteen of the cases. FISH XY studies revealed that the infiltrating lymphocytes were of donor origin in 12 of the cases, mixed in three and of host origin in two cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset lichenoid GvHD is exclusive to the PBSCT setting and appears to be mediated by donor lymphocytes, reflecting the higher numbers of donor T cells encountered in PBSCT. We consider this reaction pattern a distinctive subtype of acute GvHD.

Clinical update on graft-versus-host disease in children. Semin Cutan Med Surg.2010 Jun;29(2):92-105.
The last decade has yielded many significant advances in hematopoietic transplantation techniques, immunomodulatory prophylaxis, and diagnostic and treatment approaches to acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Unfortunately, GVHD remains the cardinal complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with significant associated rates of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we highlight the numerous strides that have been made in making hematopoietic transplantation more successful and provide an update on the clinical and histopathological features of both acute and chronic GVHD in the pediatric population. It is critical for dermatologists to be aware of the characteristic features of cutaneous acute and chronic GVHD and to remain up to date on the evolving spectrum of these conditions. We discuss 5 cases with clinico-pathologic correlation to illustrate the key concepts and principles underlying the diagnosis and management of both acute and chronic GVHD.

Lichenoid exanthema mimicking graft-versus-host disease associated with obstructive lung disease in a non-transplanted patient. Eur J Dermatol. 2010 May-Jun;20(3):381-5. Epub 2010 Mar 19.
Lichenoid graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is commonly observed in patients who have received donor lymphocyte infusions or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here we report a striking case of lichenoid GVH-like exanthema in a young woman without any history of blood transfusions or BMT. A polymorphous, multiforme-like exanthema was observed after systemic antibiotic therapy of bronchitis and was initially diagnosed as drug eruption. Later on, disseminated lichenoid papules were noticed on the trunk and extremities with all histologic and clinical characteristics of lichenoid GVHD. Cutaneous GVH-like disease developed, as did obstructive lung disease. Pulmonary as well as skin disease were both refractory to various immunosuppressive therapies. The immune pathogenesis that caused the skin and lung disease in this patient remains unclear. Multiple pregnancies with two abortions with the potential induction of microchimerism may play a role in the disease pathogenesis.

Isomorphic cutaneous graft-versus-host disease reaction after ultraviolet exposure: clinical, histological and direct immunofluorescence studies of four allo-transplanted patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.2009 Aug;23(8):913-8.
BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) continues to be a major limitation to successful haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. If experimental studies and clinical observations could partially elucidate the pathophysiology of acute GVHD, the biology of chronic GVHD is still much less well understood.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe a peculiar photoinduced rash which triggered acute and then chronic lesions of GVHD in four allogenic haematopoietic-transplanted patients and discuss the possible aetiology and treatment.
PATIENTS/METHODS: Four patients, two children and two adults affected by either mild or severe chronic GVHD, developed an erythematous rash on sun- or narrow-band ultraviolet B-exposed area, which triggered the onset of acute lesions of GVHD. Any of the patients presented neither a history of photosensitivity nor circulating autoantibodies nor urinary/fecal porphyrine.
RESULTS: The histopathologic findings were characterized by an interface dermatitis with sparse perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes and scattered necrotic keratinocytes, especially in the upper part of epidermis. Direct immunofluorescence studies excluded lupus-like pattern, revealing nests of fluorescent bodies at the dermal-epidermal junction and in papillary dermis.
CONCLUSIONS: This peculiar isomorphic reaction of cutaneous GVHD after sun or narrow-band ultraviolet B exposures is described, and the possible mechanism involved is discussed. It may represent an interesting model of progression of chronic GVHD, starting with an acute stage and ending up with chronic clinical and histological findings, especially considering that there is no animal model that fully replicates all of the features of chronic GVHD in humans.