Thursday, January 27, 2011
Answer of Dermatopathology Case 82
Visit: Dermatopathology site
Non-infectious granulomatous diseases of the skin and their associated systemic diseases: an evidence-based update to important clinical questions. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(3):171-81.
Non-infectious granulomatous diseases of the skin are a broad group of distinct reactive inflammatory conditions that share important similarities. As a group, they are relatively difficult to diagnose and distinguish both clinically as well as histologically. Many of these disorders have significant associations with systemic diseases that impact the patient's overall prognosis. In this update, we offer a discussion of emerging concepts and controversies in this field, as presented through evidence-based answers to seven important clinical questions regarding palisading and epithelioid granulomata. These questions offer an opportunity to review ten non-infectious granulomatous conditions that have implications for systemic disease: granuloma annulare, annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma, necrobiosis lipoidica, methotrexate-induced accelerated rheumatoid nodulosis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, interstitial granulomatous drug reaction, palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis, sarcoidosis, and metastatic Crohn disease. Recent clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory studies have shed some light on these diseases, the association of these conditions with systemic disorders, and their overall prognoses.
Rheumatoid nodule. Semin Cutan Med Surg.2007 Jun;26(2):100-7.
Rheumatoid nodules are the most common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. Dermatologist may be concerned with the diagnosis and management of rheumatoid nodules, although most patients will probably be under the care of a rheumatologist. This article focuses in clinical, pathogenic, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of rheumatoid nodules. Classic rheumatoid nodules commonly occur in genetically predisposed patients with severe, seropositive arthritis. However, they may appear in other clinical settings. Accelerated rheumatoid nodulosis, especially involving the hands, has been reported in patients receiving methotrexate, antitumor necrosis factor alpha biologic drugs or leflunomide therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid nodulosis is characterized by multiple rheumatoid nodules, recurrent joint symptoms with minimal clinical or radiologic involvement, and a benign clinical course. Pseudorheumatoid nodules have been reported in healthy children. Although histologically almost indistinguishable from true rheumatoid nodules, some consider these lesions to be a form of deep granuloma annulare.