DERMATOPATHOLOGY CASES: Self-Assessment Cases: Editor - Dr Sampurna Roy MD

Digital Images of interesting cases that will include the full spectrum of Dermatopathology, presented in the form of quiz.

The answer of the cases include related links and recent abstracts of articles.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Answer of Dermatopathology Case 99

Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma

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Successful treatment of Kasabach-Merritt syndrome arising from kaposiform hemangioendothelioma by systemic corticosteroid therapy and surgery.Int J Clin Oncol. 2011 Sep 28.
Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is a rare type of vascular tumor with aggressive behavior in association with thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. A standard guideline has not been established to date. A 7-day-old male infant with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome arising from kaposiform hemangioendothelioma was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroid and surgery. Systemic corticosteroid including methylprednisolone was injected intravenously followed by an intralesional injection of compound betamethasone. This approach brought about an excellent response after the first treatment which was maintained long enough to provide us with an opportunity to excise the tumor. Systemic corticosteroid and surgery may be considered an option for Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, although well-designed studies are needed to quantify the benefits and risks of this treatment

Prox1 Transcription Factor as a Marker for Vascular Tumors-Evaluation of 314 Vascular Endothelial and 1086 Nonvascular Tumors.Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Nov 3
Prox1, a transcription factor important in the regulation and maintenance of the lymphatic endothelial phenotype, is consistently expressed in lymphangiomas and Kaposi sarcoma and has also been reported in Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. However, information on its distribution in vascular tumors, such as angiosarcoma, is limited. In this study, we examined selected normal tissues and 314 vascular endothelial and 1086 nonvascular tumors to get an insight into the biology of these tumors and on potential diagnostic use of Prox1 as an immunohistochemical marker. In adult tissues, Prox1 was essentially restricted to lymphatic endothelia, with expression in subsets of pancreatic and gastrointestinal epithelia. However, it was also detected in embryonic liver and heart. Prox1 was consistently expressed in lymphangiomas, venous hemangiomas, Kaposi sarcoma, in endothelia of spindle cell hemangioma, Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, and retiform hemangioendothelioma, and in half of epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas. It was present in most cutaneous angiosarcomas from different sites but was less commonly expressed in deep soft tissue and visceral angiosarcomas. In contrast, Prox1 was generally absent in capillary and cavernous hemangiomas. In positive hemangiomas and angiosarcomas it was coexpressed with podoplanin, another marker of the lymphatic endothelial phenotype. There was an inverse correlation with CD34 expression. The expression in mesenchymal nonendothelial neoplasm was limited. Prox1 was detected in 5 of 27 synovial sarcomas, specifically in the epithelia of biphasic tumors. Four of 16 Ewing sarcomas and 5 of 15 paragangliomas were also positive. All melanomas and undifferentiated sarcomas were negative. Among epithelial neoplasms, Prox1 was detected in 18 of 38 colonic carcinomas and 10 of 15 cholangiocarcinomas and in a minority of pulmonary, prostatic, and endometrial adenocarcinomas. The common Prox1 expression in angiosarcoma and its rare presence in nonvascular mesenchymal tumors make this marker suitable for the diagnosis of angiosarcoma and Kaposi sarcoma. However, the presence of Prox1 in some malignant epithelial tumors necessitates caution in applying Prox1 as a marker for vascular tumors. Common Prox1 expression in angiosarcoma may reflect the lymphatic endothelial phenotype in these tumors. Its patterns of expression in hemangiomas and angiosarcoma may be diagnostically useful and offer a new parameter in the biological classification of vascular tumors.

Usefulness of D2-40 immunohistochemistry for differentiation between kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma.J Cutan Pathol. 2006 Jul;33(7):492-7.
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have demonstrated the utility of the monoclonal antibody D2-40 as a marker for lymphatic endothelium. D2-40 can be used on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded materials. Our objective was to elucidate, using D2-40 immunohistochemistry, the differences among capillary hemangiomas, and especially between kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA). We studied four cases of KHE, nine cases of TA, and 31 cases of other vascular tumors. Antibodies against CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and GLUT1 were also applied.
RESULTS: In KHE, D2-40 was markedly reactive for three and partially for one of four cases in the peripheral area of Kaposi's sarcoma-like proliferative capillaries and negative in the surrounding dilated vessels. In TA, D2-40 was partially positive in the surrounding dilated vessels and negative in cannonball-like proliferative capillaries.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that D2-40 is a useful antibody for immunohistochemical discrimination between KHE and TA. In addition, the difference of immunostaining pattern of D2-40 is limited to the peripheral area of capillary proliferation and surrounding dilated vessels; therefore, it is suggested that KHE and TA may reflect different stages in the evolution of a single entity. Namely, they may originate from stem cells possessing the characteristics of both lymphatic and blood vessel endothelial lineages.

Update on vascular tumors of infancy.Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010 Aug;22(4):432-7.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances have been made in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of vascular tumors of infancy in the past year. Propranolol therapy for infantile hemangiomas (IH) is now being used widely, and case reports, series, and adverse effects are reviewed. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma are less common than IH but more often associated with coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon).
RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work suggests that stem cells, mediated by the Notch signaling pathway, may become proliferating endothelial cells that comprise IH. Large, segmental IH are more likely to develop complications that can include life-threatening bleeds; however, solitary large IH do not appear to increase the risk of hepatic IH. Segmental IH may herald underlying structural anomalies of the brain, cerebral, and cardiac vessels (PHACE syndrome--Posterior fossa defects, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Cardiac defects and Coarctation of the aorta, Eye anomalies), and new criteria aid in diagnosis. Propranolol therapy is effective in life-threatening IH and appears to stop growth and hasten involution in proliferative and plateau phase IH. Adverse effects include bradycardia, hypotension, hypoglycemia, and bronchospasm. A recent review of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma finds that an associated coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon) occurs in 72%.
SUMMARY: Propranolol appears to be tremendously efficacious with fewer side effects than systemic corticosteroids, but its proper place in the therapeutic algorithm for IH and other vascular tumors awaits controlled study.