DERMATOPATHOLOGY CASES: Self-Assessment Cases: Editor - Dr Sampurna Roy MD

Digital Images of interesting cases that will include the full spectrum of Dermatopathology, presented in the form of quiz.

The answer of the cases include related links and recent abstracts of articles.








Saturday, May 7, 2011

Answer of Dermatopathology Case 98

Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

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Abstract

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma presenting in the skin: a clinicopathologic study of eight cases. Am J Dermatopathol.1998 Dec;20(6):541-6.






Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma arising in the skin is extremely rare, and the majority of documented cases have developed in association with an underlying bone tumor. We report eight patients with an age range of 29-84 years (mean 53), who presented with primary cutaneous tumors at a variety of sites including the palm, shin, neck, knee, nose, back, and penis with a duration of between 6 and 12 months. Histologically, all eight cases presented as circumscribed nodules with an overlying acanthotic epidermis, three showing striking acrosyringeal proliferation, reminiscent of eccrine syringofibroadenoma. The tumors were composed of an admixture of slightly pleomorphic spindle and epithelioid cells with abundant, sharply defined eosinophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei containing single nucleoli. Mitoses were generally sparse. All tumors showed intracytoplasmic lumina and intraluminal erythrocytes were occasionally apparent. The tumor cells were embedded in a myxoid or hyaline matrix. In contrast to visceral lesions, a vascular origin was not evident in any of our cases. The tumor cells variably expressed CD31, CD34, factor VIII-Rag, and smooth-muscle actin but not pankeratin or epithelial membrane antigen. Follow-up ranged from 4 months to 3 years. None of the lesions has thus far recurred and there have been no metastases.

Ulcerated epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the right armpit in childhood. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol.2009 Aug;31(8):595-8.
Epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas are unique vascular tumors characterized by epithelioid or histiocytoid endothelial cells that mainly affect adults. This low-grade malignant vascular tumor was described as a distinctive condition in 1982 by Weiss and Enzinger. Although the tumor is classified in between an angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and an epithelioid angiosarcoma, it sometimes takes a clinical course resembling that of angiosarcoma. We describe that case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with an approximately 6-month history of a spontaneous chronic lesion in his right armpit and became a painful ulceration in the prior 2-month period. The histopathologic examination revealed small nests and cords of spindling epithelioid endothelial cells, intracytoplasmic lumina containing erythrocytes, pinocytotic vesicles and a necrotic area. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for the endothelial markers CD31, CD34, CK(+), and vim(+). On the basis of these findings the diagnosis of EHE was made. After surgery, pathologic examination revealed metastasis in the lymph nodes. So polychemotherapy was started. As our case report shows, it is possibility that cutaneous ulceration of a malignant tumor such as EHE should be considered, even in children.

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of skin and soft tissues: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases.Am J Surg Pathol. 1997 Apr;21(4):363-74.
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of soft tissues (EHE) represents a distinct entity with an unpredictable clinical course. We analyzed the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in a series of 30 patients. Patient age range was 16-74 years (median 50); 18 of 30 patients were female. Eight tumors arose in the lower and two in the upper extremities, seven on the trunk, five each in the head/ neck and anogenital regions, two in the mediastinum, and one in the abdomen. Seventeen neoplasms were located in deep soft tissues, nine were subcutaneous or perifascial, and four were dermal; size ranged from 0.4 to 10 cm; in 11 cases the tumor was > 5 cm. Tumors with an infiltrative growth pattern were more common than entirely circumscribed lesions. The tumors were composed histologically of short strands, cords, or small clusters of epithelioid, round, to slightly spindled endothelial cells that formed at least focally, intracellular lumina and were set in a frequently myxohyaline stroma. Thirteen of 30 lesions showed angiocentric growth, which was occlusive in many cases. Immunohistochemically, all cases tested were positive for at least one endothelial marker (CD31, CD34, factor VIII, Ulex europaeus), six of 23 (26%) were positive for cytokeratin, and five of 11 (45%) were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin. Median follow-up of 36 months (range 2-96) in 24 cases showed local recurrence in three cases and systemic metastases in five cases (21%); four patients (17%) died of tumor. Although more aggressive histologic features (striking nuclear atypia in eight cases, numerous spindled cells in 10, more than two mitoses per 10 high-power fields in nine, and small, more solid angiosarcomalike foci in four cases) tended to be related to poor clinical outcome, there was no clear correlation. Two metastasizing cases showed no histologically atypical features whatever. We suggest that EHE of soft tissue is better regarded as a fully malignant, rather than borderline, vascular neoplasm, albeit the prognosis is better than in conventional angiosarcoma.