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Lichen planus and lichenoid reactions of the oral mucosa.Dermatol Ther. 2010 May-Jun;23(3):251-67.
Oral lichenoid reactions represent a common end point in response to extrinsic agents (drugs, allergens), altered self-antigens, or superantigens. Oral lichen planus, a common and under-recognized inflammatory disorder, shares many clinical and histopathological features with oral lichenoid drug reaction and oral lichenoid contact reaction. Clinical presentation can vary from asymptomatic white reticular striae to painful erythema and erosions. Cutaneous and additional mucosal involvement is common. Delay in diagnosis of extraoral mucocutaneous lichen planus (LP) results in conjunctival scarring; vaginal stenosis; vulvar destruction; and stricture of the esophagus, urethra, and external auditory meatus. Although the etiology of LP is idiopathic, oral lichenoid reactions may be caused by medications or exogenous agents such as cinnamates and other flavorings. The clinical features, evaluation, and management of these oral lichenoid reactions are discussed.
Lichen planus in children.Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.2010 Jul-Aug;76(4):366-72.
Lichen planus in children is considered to be rare overall, though it does not appear to be so in Indian subcontinent. Most of the large studies on lichen planus in children have been undertaken in India. We review here the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management and prognosis pertaining to lichen planus in children with emphasis on studies published from India.
Lichen planus. Curr Opin Dent.1991 Dec;1(6):769-72.
During the past year, few articles have been published regarding the various aspects of oral lichen planus. The work reported dealt with a variety of aspects including patient profile, immunopathogenesis, and treatment. The papers served to confirm previous concepts of an immunologic etiology, the demographic consensus on patient profiles, and the use of topical or systemic corticosteroids as the most effective treatment approach. This review also summarizes some highlights of previous studies of oral lichen planus prior to 1990 and summarizes a current unpublished prospective study reflecting the findings in a large number of patients with oral lichen planus who have been followed for a long period of time.